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Scholarly Communications: Terminology

Scholarly Communication Terminology

Appendix 1

Terminology

Scholarly Communication Program

A set of services and/or activities, provided by academic libraries, that aids in the creation, transformation, dissemination and storage of scholarly pursuits.

The UW Scholarly Communication Program will support the scholarly output of UW.

Scholarly Output

Scholarship created by researchers, faculty, students, staff and administrators at the University of Wyoming to support teaching, learning and research.

Scholarship

In broad terms, scholarship encompasses research and creative endeavors; including a variety of materials related to a publication; such as published articles, data, works in progress, images, audio and other media. 

Services

Examples of scholarly communication services include digital scholarship services, but are not limited to, author rights and copyright education, institutional repositories, open access advocacy, publishing services and research data management plans.

Author Rights

Author rights management for publication

There is a workflow that UW Libraries engages in with regard to citation searches and rights checking to ensure that we have the rights to place faculty publications in WySR.

 Copyright Education

The UW Scholarly Communication Librarian serves as a library and campus resource for education about author rights, copyright and open access publishing. Educational services are provided through consultations, materials (LibGuides), class lectures (one-offs), workshops, and community wide presentations (through ECTL and Outreach events).

This include an explanation of the basics of copyright law, the application of fair use, how to be copyright compliant, practical advice on dealing with reoccurring copyright situations such as using content in online class learning management systems, and where to get further information on copyright law. In short, copyright education means taking an active role in copyright management.

Copyright Culture

Copyright culture refers to the acceptance of copyright and level of knowledge of the average person in a country. For example, moral rights are mostly unknown in the U.S., whereas most Europeans are familiar with this copyright concept.

Institutional Repository (IR)

The IR stores the output of the university communities.

More from Clifford Lynch…

In my view, a university-based institutional repository is a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution. While operational responsibility for these services may reasonably be situated in different organizational units at different universities, an effective institutional repository of necessity represents a collaboration among librarians, information technologists, archives and records managers, faculty, and university administrators and policymakers. At any given point in time, an institutional repository will be supported by a set of information technologies, but a key part of the services that comprise an institutional repository is the management of technological changes, and the migration of digital content from one set of technologies to the next as part of the organizational commitment to providing repository services. An institutional repository is not simply a fixed set of software and hardware.

While early implementers of institutional repositories have chosen different paths to begin populating their repositories and to build campus community acceptance, support, and participation, I believe that a mature and fully realized institutional repository will contain the intellectual works of faculty and students--both research and teaching materials--and also documentation of the activities of the institution itself in the form of records of events and performance and of the ongoing intellectual life of the institution. It will also house experimental and observational data captured by members of the institution that support their scholarly activities.

At the most basic and fundamental level, an institutional repository is a recognition that the intellectual life and scholarship of our universities will increasingly be represented, documented, and shared in digital form, and that a primary responsibility of our universities is to exercise stewardship over these riches: both to make them available and to preserve them. An institutional repository is the means by which our universities will address this responsibility both to the members of their communities and to the public. It is a new channel for structuring the university's contribution to the broader world, and as such invites policy and cultural reassessment of this relationship.

I want to make the distinction between scholarly publishing as it is currently practiced and the broader, much more diverse, often less formal, and certainly more rapidly evolving set of practices that comprise scholarly communication; scholarly publishing is a very specific, circumscribed example of scholarly communication. I use the two terms "scholarly communication" and "scholarly publishing" distinctly and carefully in this paper. For example, the definition I propose for an institutional repository does not call for a new scholarly publishing role for universities, only one of dissemination of scholarly communication; scholarly publishing is much more than simple dissemination, and has typically been rather limited in the genres of communication that it does disseminate. I will have more to say about the relationships between repositories and publishing later.

For those organizations within the university concerned with stewardship--we think immediately of libraries, archives, and museums but should recognize there are also huge numbers of academic units that curate collections of information--it should be clear that institutional repositories raise complex and nuanced questions about organizational roles, responsibilities resources, and strategies. Similar, but perhaps less complex, questions arise for all organizational units focused on dissemination of scholarly communication or more narrowly on scholarly publishing, such as university presses.

Lynch, C. A. (February 2003). Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. Association of Research Libraries, no. 226. Retrieved from http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br226/br226ir.shtml

Wyoming Scholars Repository (WySR)

A UW Libraries service dedicated to preserving and providing open access to the scholarly and creative works of the University of Wyoming. WySR provides open access to works produced by University of Wyoming faculty, researchers, and students. The goals of WySR are to increase the visibility of UW’s scholarship, encourage collaboration and innovation, and contribute to the ongoing development of new knowledge.

UW Libraries will work in partnership with university departments, programs, centers, and individual faculty members to select, submit, and manage repository content. Members of the academic community are invited to contribute their completed scholarship for long-term preservation and worldwide electronic accessibility. Archiving content in WySR is free and allowed by many publishers. Faculty and researchers may also choose to create a SelectedWorks homepage to highlight and share their scholarship with colleagues.

Content archived in WySR is:

  • More discoverable by search engines such as Google.
  • Indexed and searchable in the Digital Commons Network, a database of networked institutional repositories.
  • Hosted on a secure server and given a persistent URL to ensure permanent access.
  • Openly accessible to researchers around the world who may have limited access to scholarly materials.

Open Access Advocacy

Through the Role of the Open Access IR

  • Provides a central component in reforming scholarly communication
    • By stimulating innovation in a disaggregated publishing structure.
  • Contributes to the “open” movement of scholarship (OA, open data, and OER)
    • Free to read
    • Free to re-use
  • Serves as a tangible indicator of an institution’s quality
    • Increasing its visibility, prestige and public value.

Through Open Access (OA) Publishing

OA publishing can reduce plagiarism by increasing exposure. OA does not affect peer-review nor does it replace journals. WySR offers peer-review journal publication. Authors can engage in open access through two processes known as Green Open Access and Gold Open Access.

  • Green Open Access– when an author self-archives their journal articles in an OA repository such as an Institutional Repository also known as an IR. This means they must actively keep their right to deposit into an OA repository.
  • Gold Open Access - when an author publishes in an open access journal. Many times publishers offer to make an article openly available on the Internet for an additional fee (costs typically range from $1,500-$5000).

OA Publishing Services

UW Libraries are working to provide OA Publishing Services through WySR.

The content housed in WySR includes: journal publications (both pre- and post-print), conference and symposia (papers and proceedings), presentations, working papers, book chapters, scholarly monographs, open educational resources (textbooks and curriculum materials), technical reports, data sets and primary source material. 

Benefits of WySR

Managing Scholarship - pull it all together in a centralized location

Articles, chapters, audio & video files and supplementary files (i.e. data, extra code, etc.)

Customizable –choose design layout and content

By Material Type, Subject Category, Additional Information (expertise, courses, honors & awards, contact information, curriculum vitae, associations, websites, blogs, etc.), and Update Anytime.

Dissemination & Discoverability

Full-text indexed, Strong SEO –be found on Google, simple URL, networking with social media

Usage Tracking & Feedback - Alternative Metrics

Download Reports - citation counts are only part of the impact story

Recruitment – increase visibility, prestige and public value

Prospective students and scholarly collaborators

Digitizing

Not simply the act of scanning an analog document into digital form.

A series of activities that results in a digital copy being made available to end users via the Internet or other means for a sustained length of time. The activities may include:

•             Document identification and selection

•             Document preparation (including access review and screening, locating, pulling, etc.)

•             Basic descriptive and technical metadata collection sufficient to allow retrieval and management of the digital

copies and to provide basic contextual information for the user

•             Digital conversion

•             Quality control of digital copies and metadata

•             Providing public access to the material via online delivery of reliable and authentic copies

•             Providing online ordering for reproduction services at quality or quantities beyond the capacity of an end user

•             Maintenance of digital copies and metadata

Research Data Management Plans

Academic libraries are supporting researchers by providing consultation services and related projects with regard to the data management mandate involving federally funded research grants. There is an increasing number of funding agencies that are requiring Data Management Plans as part of the grant application process.